“human fertility control” AND vaccination
4,526,716: Antigenic modification of polypeptides (from the year 1985) has the following summary:
Modified hormones or fragments of hormones are useful in producing antibodies when administered to an animal. Said antibodies in turn cause neutralization of endogenous natural protein hormones. Also, non-endogenous proteins or peptides (for example viral proteins or fragments thereof) can be modified to increase an animal’s immune response thereto. These modification may be accomplished by attaching various kinds of modifying groups to the hormone or fragment. Modification may, for example, be achieved by chemically coupling diazosulfanilic acid groups to the hormone or fragment. The protein hormones to which this procedure can be applied are mammalian protein reproductive hormones such as, for example, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), or Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG). These modified polypeptides may be administered to animals for the purpose of contraception, abortion, or treatment of hormone-related disease states and disorders, including hormone-associated carcinomas.
Reference to “human fertility control” in the text:
Another group of polypeptides which can be altered by the procedures described herein and used in the field of human fertility control are specific non-hormonal protein antigens isolated from placental tissue. There is direct evidence that inhibition of substances that are specific to the placental tissue and do not have similar antigenic properties with other antigens from organs in other parts of the body, can result in the disruption of pregnancies by passive immunization. Such specific placental substances when modified to form modified polypeptides by the procedures described herein can be injected into the body of an animal of the same species as an effective fertility control means with the mechanism being active immunization similar to that described for the antigenic modification of hormones. The particular advantages of these substances is that placental antigens are foreign to the non-pregnant female human subject and therefore are unlikely to cause any cross-reaction or disruption of normal body function in the non-pregnant female.
Examples of references to vaccines or vaccination in the text:
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FIG. 7 shows the levels of antibody to HCG produced in rabbits by vaccines containing a tetanus-toxoid-coupled modified peptide and various adjuvants in Example XXXIII below; and
FIG. 8 shows the levels of antibodies to HCG and peptide produced in mice of various species by a vaccine comprising a tetanus-toxoid-coupled modified peptide coupled to various adjuvants in Example XXXII below.
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. . . It is well recognized by those skilled in immunology (see e.g. W. R. Jones, “Immunological Fertility Regulation”, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Victoria, Australia (1982), pages 11 et seq.) that one of the greatest potential hazards of a vaccine, especially a contraceptive vaccine, is cross-reactivity with non-target antigens, producing what is essentially an artificially-induced auto-immune disease capable of causing immunopathological lesions in, and/or loss of function of, the tissues carrying the cross-reactive substances.
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An anti-fertility vaccine based upon zona antigens is especially attractive because zona appear to be relatively free of side-effects on other tissues and because methods have been developed for producing swine zona antigens in large quantities; swine and human zona antigens show very good cross-reactivity. As in the case of anti-fertility vaccines based upon the .beta.-HCG antigens discussed above, it is likely that better results will be obtained by modifying a zona antigen or a fragment thereof to produce a modified polypeptide of this invention.
Another possible approach to the production of an anti-fertility vaccine uses sperm antigens. Several antigens, especially sperm enzymes, known to exist in sperm, are potential candidates for use in a vaccine; see W. R. Jones, op. cit., pages 133 et seq. The most promising such antigen is the lactate hydrogenase known as LDH-C4 or LDH-X. . . .
Although theoretically an anti-fertility vaccine based on sperm antigens might be useful in males, the likelihood of testicular damage renders it more likely that such a vaccine will find its utility in females. It is known that circulating antibodies in the female bloodstream do penetrate the genital fluids; for example experiments in baboons with vaccines based upon a Structure (XII)/tetanus toxoid conjugate of this invention have shown the presence of HCG antibodies in the genital fluids. However, one possible problem with any vaccine based on sperm antigens is maintaining a sufficiently high antibody level in female genital fluids to complex with the large amounts of sperm involved.
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. . . Although statistical comparisons are difficult because of the very small numbers of pregnancies involved in the conjugate-immunized baboons, it thus appears that the vaccine used in this Example containing Structure (XII)/diphtheria toxoid conjugate is more effective in preventing conception in baboons than the vaccine used in Example XXXI.
. . . The control group of mice were given immunizations at the same time, but the vaccine used contained only the vehicle. Two days after the final immunization, each mouse was inoculated subcutaneously in the lower back with approximately one million viable cells of transplantable Lewis lung carcinoma. Measurements of the volume of the tumor were made 10, 14 and 17 days after tumor implantation and then, on day 18, the mice were sacrified and the tumor removed and weighed.
. . . This example illustrates the effect of a vaccine of the invention in increasing the survival rate of mice suffering from viral-induced leukemia. . . .
There are also a lot of other references to vaccines, and also to vaccine adjuvants, including Squalene.