July 3, 2011: Ernest Hemingway ‘driven to suicide over FBI surveillance’, www.telegraph.co.uk
The FBI file on Hemingway was released in 1983.
He complained about the surveillance, was committed to psychiatric care, where he received electro-shock treatment and attempted suicide. Then he shot himself.
His fears were considered “paranoid delusions” for years.
His friend, A.E. Hotchner, now says:
“In the years since, I have tried to reconcile Ernest’s fear of the FBI, which I regretfully misjudged, with the reality of the FBI file,” wrote Hotchner, the author of ‘Papa Hemingway’.